The Directional Fanning instructions on the following two pages may save more lives than any other instructions given in this book for a homemakeable survival item. If air is fanned into such a room through the lower part of its completely open doorway, then air will flow back out of the room through the upper part of the doorway. The model illustrated is made of 2 nominal 1 x 2-inch boards, one 46 inches long and the other 35 inches long. C. ADDITIONAL ADVANTAGES OF DIRECTIONAL FANS. These jungle methods include the first five of the six cooling methods listed in this section. 6.5. Directional Fans enable shelter occupants to quickly reverse the direction of air flow through their shelter when outdoor wind changes cause the direction of natural air flow' to be reversed. The most dangerous level is the Winter Storm Warning. (If the air-exhaust opening of your small shelter is much larger than that shown in the sketches, block part of it off to reduce it to approximately this 24-inch-high by 20-inch-wide size, for more effective use with this fan.) Because of the worldwide extreme fear of radiation, civil defense specialists who prepare official self-help instructions for building shelters have made radiation protection their overriding objective. Russian small expedient shelters are even more dangerously under-ventilated than are most of their American counterparts, and can serve to illustrate similar ventilation deficiencies of American shelters. This publication has all of the details you will need on how to build your own tornado shelter in your area. See sketch. ° Provide occupants with adequate drinking water and salt. If you live in a tornado-prone area, you’ll love this post. Breathe in the Midst of a Storm (73) Everyday we start Anew. FEMA’s safe room guidance also references criteria in ICC 500, Standard for the Design and Construction of Storm Shelters. 4. Apparently the men in Moscow and Washington who decide what shelter-building and shelter-ventilating instructions their fellow citizens receive - especially instructions for building and improving expedient shelters-do not understand the ventilation requirements for maintaining endurable temperature/humidity conditions in crowded shelters. "PIPE FOR VENTILATION," which makes this very small shelter essentially dead-ended and thereby eliminates adequate ventilation in warm weather. To pump more air, block off the upper part of the doorway with cloth, cardboard, plywood, etc.. to prevent air from flowing back in the wrong direction through the upper part of the doorway. If waterproof tape is available, cover the parts that you will grip with sweaty hands, thus preventing dampening and softening the cardboard. Except for a relatively few sick people dependent on air conditioning, anyone could endure air that has an effective temperature only 2 degrees F higher than that of the air outdoors. If a chimney-like opening or vent-duct is provided in the ceiling, the warmed, lighter air will flow upward and out of the shelter, provided an adequate air-intake vent is open near the floor. To ventilate and cool a room having only one doorway and no other opening, do not block off any part of the doorway. Ch. Share sensitive information only on official, secure websites.. A safe room is a hardened structure specifically designed to meet the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) criteria and provide near-absolute protection in extreme weather events, including tornadoes and hurricanes. If y­ou're caught in a storm while camping or hiking, finding a safe shelter may be difficult. She was aware of the high-risk of tornadoes in this area, and they had a storm shelter installed in their garage. (If cord or wire is not available. forced the warm air out of the shelter room at ceiling height through the emergency crawlway-exhaust trench at the other end. However, this pumps much less air than when a separate, large air-exhaust opening is provided. However, shelter-building experiments have shown that the physically stronger individuals, usually the more experienced builders, should do more of the hard, manual work when shelters are built, and that those less experienced at building should do the lighter work including making shelter ventilating pumps. Register your storm shelter. (Photograph) Fig. Your filtration and circulation should have backup power, and some nicer setups offer manpower emergency temporary options. By using one or more additional, smaller KAPs (also described in Appendix B), fresh air can be distributed easily throughout large shelter rooms, and the occupants will be gently fanned. To cover the fan's blade, any strong, light fabric, such as bedsheet cloth, serves well If you are going to sew on the cloth, first cuts 26 x 30-inch piece. Wood-Earth Shelter without Lining of the Walls for Clay Soils, 10 Occupants: 1 - Trap Door; 2 - Dust Filter with a Straw Packing (hay); 3 - Earth Cover 60-80 cm thick; 4 - Roofing made of Poles; 5-Exhaust Duct with Damper; 6 - Curtain made of Tightly Woven Cloth; 7 - Removable Container for Wastes; 8- Water Collecting Sump.NOTE: Bill of materials is: Rough Lumber, 2.7 cubic meters; Nails, 0.12 kilogram; Wire, 0.64 kilogram; Work Requirement, 90-110 man-hours; Shielding Coefficient, 250-300. To adequately ventilate and cool people crowded into a long tunnel in hot weather, a pair of Bedsheet Fanners should be positioned about every 100 feet along its length. Building an in-ground or above-ground storm shelter should be done by licensed professionals who follow the guidelines set by governmental organizations such as the Federal Emergency Management Administration (FEMA). As proved by habitability tests in Florida and elsewhere, a KAP or Directional Fan must be used, even with two crawlway entry/exits. 6.5, except that each lacked a trapdoor and filter. Such Directional Fanning is especially effective in increasing the air flow through small, narrow shelters. with a 6 in. A 2-Handled Directional Fan of the size illustrated (14 in. However, typical cardboard will become soft and worthless in most crowded, long-occupied humid shelters. Recommendations such as those above realistically face the fact that, if we suffer a nuclear attack, the vast majority of Americans will have only the fallout protection given by buildings and some expedient shelters. Cardboard covering a blade is likely to become damp and fragile in the humid air of a crowded shelter, very light sheetmetal makes a good fan blade and requires only 2 sticks. Near-absolute protection means that, based on our current knowledge of tornadoes and hurricanes, the occupants of a safe room built in accordance with FEMA guidance will have a very high probability of being protected from injury or death. If you have an outdoor concrete shelter, make sure to allow plenty of time to get to the shelter before the tornado arrives. Air movement can keep bare skin drier, and therefore less susceptible to heat rash and skin infections. The father of the Utah family described earlier had made this simple pump at home, using only materials and tools found in many homes as described in Appendix B. Size of the Storm Shelter. Now, we will give you some tips for storm shelter storage ideas. Hang a sliding door and then hire an electrician to run power to … This procedure was first proved practical during a 1981 ventilation test that Cresson H. Kearny participated in with Chinese civil defense officials in the port city of Dalien. You’re walked through the process, how the storm shelter works, and things you may need to store inside of the shelter in case of an emergency. 3. In a trench shelter, where air is pumped in at one end and flows out the other, good distribution is assured.In larger shelters, such as basements, ventilating air will move from the air-supply opening straight to the air exhaust opening. Due to the intended function of safe rooms and site-specific conditions that need to be addressed, it is FEMA’s recommendation that a licensed design professional be involved. Each shelter bears a certificate with a serial number from the National Storm Shelter Association stating that the design, construction and installation meet the FEMA P 361 and NSSA ICC 500 2014 which are the highest standards for building tornado shelters. 2. To make a durable 2-handled fan, first make its frame out of 2 sticks each 14 inches long and 2 sticks each 22 inches long. In cool weather, occupants body heat will warm the shelter air and make it lighter than the outdoor air. Also, if during the time of maximum fallout dose rate the occupants get close together in the most protective part of the shelter, they often will get unbearably hot unless fanned. To increase the flow of outdoor air through a tunnel-shelter, several fanners equally spaced along its length should each fan in the direction of the natural air flow. Stabilized Radioactive Fallout Clouds Shown a Few Minutes After the Explosions, with distances that spherical fallout particles having diameters of 40, 50, and 100 microns fall in 8 hours.6. The licensed design professional who signs the certification attests that the design or product will meet the requirements specified on the certification. [Figure 20.] Fortunately, most of the very small and tiniest fallout particles would not be deposited for days to months, by which time radioactive decay would have made them much less dangerous. Flat Top Shelter 5’x7′ and 6’2″H 7’x10′ and 6’2″H. Numerous shelter occupancy tests have proved that modern Americans can live for weeks in an adequately cooled shelter with only 10 square feet of floor space per person.13Other tests, such as one conducted by the Navy near Washington, D.C. during an abnormally cool two weeks in August, 1962, have shown that conditions can become difficult even when summertime outdoor air is being pumped through a long-occupied shelter at the rate of 12 cubic feet per minute, per person.14,15This is four times the minimum ventilation rate for each occupant specified by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) for American shelters: 3 cubic feet per minute (3 cfm). We do not offer financing, but many banks around the country finance storm shelter loans for under 2% interest rate (APR) or we can refer you to one if you don't already have one in mind. (At that time I was traveling extensively in China as an official guest, exchanging civil defense information.) ), Figure 6.2 shows (behind the girl) a 20-inch-wide by 36-inch-high KAP installed in the entry trench of a trench shelter. The size A tornado-safe room should have five square feet of space per person. Make the pendulum-like return stroke with the fan blade kept edgewise )" feathered") to the air flow until the end, when you quickly turn it 90 degrees, preparatory.' And, if you're putting your shelter on an existing concrete slab, like a garage floor, if you don't have rebar reinforcing in the floor, you'll have to tear it out and pour a new slab. F: Providing Improved Ventalation and Light. There are Vents on Top of the Shelter. The resultant large clouds of extremely small radioactive particles in the troposphere usually would be blown eastward, and resultant life-endangering "hot spots" from rain-outs and/or snow-outs could be scattered clear to the Atlantic coast. He carried the pump on top of his car to the shelter-building site. The reader is advised not to read this section if pressed for time during a crisis, unless he is considering building an expedient or permanent shelter described in an official civil defense publication. plywood nailed to a single board. DIRECTIONAL FANNING TO VENTILATE SHELTERS. Typically, these 'hot" particles would be so large and fast-falling that they would not be carried into expedient shelters equipped with low-velocity air intake openings, such as those described in this book. Some people who are experienced at building things will find these instructions unnecessarily long and detailed. In contrast, tests with average citizens have indicated that if they have instructions for making and using Directional Fans and if there are a few hours of warning time before the attack, then the majority will be able to ventilate all of their expedient shelters, except some of the largest. Pulling a Small. The Car-Over-Trench Shelter pictured in Fig. 4 2-inch-wide strips of strong cloth, slightly twisted, serve well.). In freezing weather, a belowground shelter covered with damp earth may continue to absorb almost all of its occupants' body heat for many days and stay unpleasantly cold. 1. B: How to Make and Use a Homemade Shelter-Ventilating Pump, App. 6.4, a relatively "large" particle - 40 microns (40 u m) in diameter, spherical, and with the sand-like density of most fallout particles - falls about 1300 feet in 8 hours. For most shelters built or improved hurriedly during a crisis it will be impractical to provide filtered air. As part of Oak Ridge National Laboratory's participation in Defense Nuclear Agency's "Dice Throw" 1978 blast test, I built two Russian Pole- Covered Trench Shelters. However, if most shelters are fully occupied for a few days without adequate ventilation, the floors, walls, and ceilings, originally cool, will have absorbed about all the body heat of which they are capable. ° Move the air gently, so as not to raise its temperature. This also will assure that the air is fresh and low in exhaled carbon dioxide. With the car being parked over the storm shelter, this helps acts as a shield. 6.4. Numerous tests have shown that the hazards from fallout particles carried into shelters by unfiltered ventilating air are minor compared to the dangers from inadequate ventilation. The reader is urged to keep the following two pages of Directional Fanning instructions ready for reproduction in a crisis. And in hot weather, when as much as 40 cfm per occupant is required, body-warmed shelter air is no lighter than the outdoor air. "Effective temperature" combines the effects of the temperature of the air, its relative humidity, and its movement. This potential danger from extremely small fallout particles will be worsened if the United States deploys mobile ICBMs such as Midget- man, probably on large military reservations in the West. ), During the 77 hours that the family continuously occupied their narrow, covered trench, the temperatures outside rose as high as 930 F. Without the air pump, the six occupants would have been driven from their shelter by unbearable temperature- humidity conditions during the day.8, The photo in Fig. The pendulum-like, flap-valve pump was swung from two cabinet hinges (not shown) screwed onto a board. Keep important financial and personal documents in one place, such as an accordion folder. x 16 in. Each opening was covered by a small awning. Allow the concrete to cure for 24 hours, then strip away the wooden form. Subsequently, they were improved for fallout protection but were made much less habitable by Soviet civil defense specialists. The pieces should he securely tied or taped together. The guidance contained in FEMA P-320, FEMA P-361 or ICC 500 can all be used to address these extreme loads. The air should be fanned out of the shelter in the direction in which the air is naturally flowing. Can you install on post tension cables? Only very widely available materials are needed. Hold the fan like a golf club and swing it with your arms extended. When the weather is cool, a piece of plastic or tightly woven cloth could be hung inthe doorway of a well designed, narrow shelter, to cause a flow of fresh air in the same manner. In occupancy tests of crowded shelters when the supply of outdoor air was hot and dry, shelter occupants have been surprised to find that they felt hottest at the air-exhaust end of their shelter, where the temperature reading was lower than at the air-intake end. The instructions given in this book could be photographed, reproduced, and mass-distributed by newspapers. I am qualified for a FEMA storm shelter rebate. The walls, ceiling, and door of the shelter must withstand wind pressure and resist penetration by wind-borne objects and falling debris. By fanning through a 24 x 20-inch hole in a cardboard partition built across a doorway inside a U- shaped permanent trench shelter 76 feet long, the air flow was increased by an average of :327 cubic feet per minute. If using sawed sticks, he sure to use none smaller than 3/4 inch in cross section. Fig. This manual air pump, described in Appendix B, can force large volumes of air through low- resistance openings with minimum effort. Then if you must evacuate, take the folder with you to the storm shelter. This is an ALERT to those who own or have to go down into a storm shelter, be sure to take your cell phone with you. For unprepared people, inhalation of fallout particles would be a minor danger compared to being forced out of a shelter because of dangerously inadequate ventilation. If you’re considering buying a storm shelter to protect your family, the employees at your small business, or the members of your community, you pr… [read more] You’re Always Safer in a Storm Shelter, Even During a Pandemic The prescriptive plans for safe rooms provided in FEMA P-320 are not intended to be a substitute for a licensed design professional. With one or more Directional Fans, air inside a shelter can be distributed effectively and the occupants cooled. Maintaining a storm shelter in preparation for a natural disaster may seem a bit alarmist to some, but if you have ever lived through a tornado, earthquake or tsunami, you understand the need for preparation. The human nose and other air passages can filter out almost all particles 10 micrometers [10 microns] [or larger] in diameter, and about 95 percent of those exceeding 5 micrometers." For maximum ventilation rate, fan about 40 strokes per minute. By fanning vigorously, 500 to 600 cubic feet per minute have been forced through a small covered-trench shelter. The best expedient way to maintain livable conditions in a shelter, especially in hot weather, is to make and use a large-volume shelter-ventilating pump. 2,3. As shown below in Fig. Two years ago, we got a scare and a … Dec 31, 2014 - DIY Tutorial - How to Build an In-house Emergency Storm Shelter... very detailed photo's and tutorial. Wrap the 30-inch width smoothly crosswise around the frame, after cutting 4 notches in the cloth's corners, so that the tied-together parts of the sticks will not he covered. As anticipated, so little air flowed through these essentially dead-ended test shelters that temperatures soon became unbearable. If time and/or materials are very limited, make a fan with its blade merely a piece of cloth connecting two 22-inch-long sticks. The entering cool air continuously. The doors at both ends were open. It indicates that four or more inches of snow are expected within the next 12 hours or six or more inches of snow within the next 24 hours with wind gusts of up to 35 miles per hour. Note that this high- protection-factor, covered-trench shelter depends on air flowing down through its "Dust Filter with Straw Packing (hay)" and out through its small "Exhaust Duct with Damper.". Then they repeated. See sketch. During this move the fanners change hands, as illustrated. Make the power stroke by rapidly sweeping their sticks and the attached cloth in an arc, until they are leaning in the downwind direction and the sticks and cloth are again horizontal. LockA locked padlock Steel Door with gas assisted hinge for easy opening. Vibrate the concrete throughout the pour to eliminate voids and air bubbles. 15: Improvised Clothing and Protective Items, Ch. The board was nailed to roof poles of the narrow entry trench extending behind the girl in the photograph. It's a win situation all round, and the combination of which will keep you that much safer for the remainder of the day. Adequate natural ventilation for belowground shelters is more difficult. Thanks to Congressman Ike Skelton, Democrat of Missouri and strong civil defense advocate, in 1981 I was able to demonstrate Directional Fanning to Louis Giuffrida, at that time the Director of FEMA. - YouTube Instructions for Directional Fanning, the simplest means for forcing adequate volumes of air to flow through shelters, are given at the end of this chapter. No habitability tests were required. To prevent possible blistering of hands, wrap cloth around the fan handles, or wear gloves. Eating lunch in a storm shelter, staying warm and dry in the process. These were like the shelter shown in Fig. Then, if a need arises to stop or restrict ventilation, the shelter can be closed for longer than could be done safely otherwise. 1/8th in.) Preferably stand opposite and facing the open door, which should be secured open and perpendicular to its doorway. Basic safe room information and construction drawings for site-built safe rooms are provided in FEMA P-320, Taking Shelter from the Storm: Building a Safe Room for Your Home or Small Business FEMA’s safe room guidance also references criteria in ICC 500, Standard for the Design and Construction of Storm Shelters . ° Wear as few clothes as practical. ... Breathe. Simple means for preventing skin diseases and infections-means proved very effective by jungle natives and by our best trained jungle infantrymen in World War II - are described in the Prevention of Skin Diseases section of Chapter 12. Directional Fanning is the simplest way to force enough outdoor air through typical basement, trench, and other expedient shelters to maintain endurable conditions, even in extremely hot, humid weather. This very simple fan is reasonably effective, although tiring to use. E: How to Make a Homemade Piston Pump, App. Whenever practical, directionally fan the air in the same direction that the air is naturally flowing through the shelter. With this small two handled fan you quite easily can force about 300 cubic feet per minute (300 cfm) of outdoor air through a crowded trench or basement shelter. No widely available official American publication includes instructions for making and using any expedient airpumping device. The most practical design tested was made from a strong double bedsheet cut down to 6-foot width, with the wide hem at its head-end left unchanged and with a similar- sized hem sewn in its opposite end, to give a finished length of 6 feet. (There are exceptions to this ventilation requirement when the ceiling or walls of basement or aboveground shelters in buildings are heated by the sun to levels higher than skin temperature. Enough air usually will be blown through an aboveground shelter if sufficiently large openings are provided on opposite sides and if there is any breeze. There was a 10-inch space between the air pump and the trench floor, and the resulting flow of air maintained adequate ventilation in the cool of the desert night, when outdoor temperatures dropped as low as 450 F. Cool outdoor air flowed down into the entry and under the motionless air pump, replacing the body-warmed air inside the shelter. If 40 cubic feet per minute (40 cfm) per person of outdoor air is supplied and properly distributed, then (even if the outdoor air is at a temperature which is typical of the hottest hours during a heat wave in a hot, humid area of the United States) the effective temperature of the shelter air will be increased no more than 2 degrees F by the shelter occupants' body heat and water vapor. To keep loose shielding earth from running under the car and into the trench, the upper edges of 5-foot-wide strips of polyethylene film first were attached with duct tape to the sides and ends of the car, about 2 feet above the ground. In the 1960s when the threat of nuclear annihilation was a real fear, many people built a fallout shelter to protect their families from radiation poisoning. Hold the sticks and cloth horizontal (to permit air that was "sucked" behind the cloth to continue flowing in the desired direction) while leisurely moving the Bedsheet Fan back to the starting position. Look for shelter. A.4: Aboveground, Door-Covered Shelter, App. VENTILATION/COOLING OF PERMANENT SHELTERS. This should allow you room to get out of your shelter in the event of a direct hit. If you are thinking of getting a tornado shelter installed, or already have one, storage is a very important part of your shelter. If you plan on furnishing your storm shelter or adding a bathroom, then you are going to need more space. With many more pairs of Bedsheet Fanners working, enough air for at least 10,000 occupants could be "sucked" into this mine through one of its 17 x 20-foot portals, fanned down a corridor to the far "dead end" of the mine, then fanned through across corridor, and finally fanned back out through the corridor that has the second truck-sized portal at its outer end. After 1000 hours of operation during which it pumped air through a room at a rate of 4000 cubic feet per minute (4000 cfm), there were only minor tears in the plastic flaps. Or use a single round stick about 1-1/4 inches in diameter, flattened on one side. After all, severe storms require you to stay down in these shelters for long periods of time. If you do not have strong string, use 1/2 inch-wide strips of bedsheet cloth, or other strong cloth, slightly twisted. Providing enough outdoor air to shelters, rather than filtered air, will continue to deserve first priority. A blade of 4-inch plywood is too heavy. Persons out of this air stream will not be adequately cooled. 6.1. Round sticks were smoothed. Their sweaty bodies had acted as evaporative air coolers, but their body heat had raised the effective temperature, a reliable indicator of heat stress. Pin or tape the cloth to make a smooth blade: finally sew securely. Field tests have proved that average Americans can build the expedient air pump described in Appendix B in a few hours, with inexpensive materials found in most households. One of the most important nuclear war survival skills people should learn is how to keep occupied shelters adequately ventilated in all seasons and cool enough for many days of occupancy in warm or hot weather. Scavenging is most effective below about 30,000 feet, the maximum height of most rain and snow clouds. For maximum ventilation, the air-intake opening of a shelter should heat least as large as its air-exhaust opening. Tens of millions of Russians have been taught to build such shelters. Then the pair of fanners should count 1, 2. :3 while they: 1. However, if you do not know if you live in a flood plane, upon going to pull a permit through your city, they should inform you wheter you are or not. In extremely hot weather, this means 4 quarts of water per day per person and 1 tablespoon (10 grams) of salt, including the salt in food. The sections on the small 2-handled Directional Fan and the large 1-Man Fan will be the most useful to unprepared people. It was named the Kearny Air Pump (KAP) by the Office of Civil Defense following tests of various models by Stanford Research Institute, the Protective Structures Development Center, and General American Transportation Company. 6.3 points up the overriding need for pumped air for occupants of crowded shelters during warm or hot weather. Two men thus fanning vigorously produced a net air flow of 5,500 cubic feet per minute through an empty school corridor that is 8 feet wide, has a 9- foot ceiling, and is 194 feet long. The stabilized clouds of such explosions would be mostly in the troposphere, and some of even the tiniest particles - those small enough to be breathed into one's lungs - would be promptly scavenged and deposited in scattered "hot spots." How Do You Breathe Inside A Nuclear Bomb Shelter? The principal disadvantage of Directional Fans is that they are more laborious to operate than are KAPs, that are manually powered, pendulum- like air pumps that conserve energy. Two persons preparing to use a Bedsheet Fan see sketch) should stand facing each other, at right angles to the desired direction of air flow', with the cloth extended horizontally between them. Check them out below: We recently wrote about what to keep in your storm shelter. When using sticks cut from a tree, select ones with diameters of about 3' inch, and make shallow notches in all 4 sticks before tying together the 4 corners of the blade. ° Headaches from the carbon monoxide produced by smoking. Because the Soviets have deployed thousands of ICBMs with warheads of "only" 100 to 550 kilotons, Americans face increased dangers from very radioactive particles scavenged by rain-outs or snow-outs. Many such retained particles may be swallowed when cleared from one's air passageways by the body's natural protective processes. Although FEMA P-320 and P-361 present FEMA’s guidance on the design and construction of safe rooms, FEMA does not verify or certify design calculations or products. All the debri that would fall on top of the storm shelter will instead fall on top of the car and fall off the sides. 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